Cameroon is a signatory to the 1951 Convention, in addition to establishing a national framework for its implementation in 2005. The largest populations of refugees in the country originate from Nigeria with 83,407 in the Northern region, and CAR with 233,164 along the Eastern border. Additionally, there are reports of 241,987 IDPs in the Northern region of the country. Despite being allotted the right to work, many refugees face problems in accessing employment markets (GFI). In terms of access to financial services, only a limited amount of refugees able to receive access, with only 2.5% of refugees having access to savings services and only 2.5% having access to loan services, all on an informal basis  Of the refugee population, 53% are women with 87.7% of the population having no educational background. The main livelihood activities for refugees consist of agriculture at 17.8, sellers at 17%, and pastoral workers at 9.8% (LIS).

Cameroon has a population of 23,340,000 with 49.9% of the population under the age of 18. Cameroon ranked 153 out of the 188 on the Human Development Index. 90% of the countries poorest population is living in rural areas or in the security tense northern area. Cameroon has a diversified economy  that relies mostly on hydrocarbons at 8% of GDP and agriculture at 15% of GDP. Although Cameroon has one of the strongest economies in Central Africa, economic growth has slowed from 5.7% in 2015 to a current 4.9% due to the security situation in the North along with a drop in pricing for hydrocarbons. The primary sector accounts for 23% of the GDP as well as employing 61% of the labor force. Additionally, agriculture is a key pillar of the economy with Cameroon being the main producer of cocoa, coffee, bananas, palm, tobacco and cotton. The main industries for Cameroon are the agri-food industry, the manufacturing industry and the textile industry.

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