Despite being a signatory to the 1951 convention, the protection environment for PoCs remains weak. Somalia passed a refugee protection act in 2017, however, a comprehensive and legal framework for PoCs has yet to be implemented. Currently, Somalia hosts around 17,257 refugees and 16,814 asylum seekers mainly from Yemen and Ethiopia. The majority of PoCs (58%) live in Somali-land, while 10% reside in Mogadishu, 30% reside in Bossaso (Puntland) and a remaining 2% in other locations. As of May 2019, an estimated 2.6 million IDPs and 126,114 returnees; returnees mainly from Kenya (83,535 individuals) and Yemen (41,231 individuals). All PoCs (mainly refugees and asylum seekers) live in an urban setting as there are no encampment policy for refugees and asylum seekers in Somalia. Nonetheless, for RAS,  xenophobia and discrimination effects basic services for PoCs including livelihoods leading to high unemployment rates, low income levels and limited access to financial services especially for Ethiopian caseloads - this is largely due to differences in cultures and tradition as opposed to Yemeni RAS who have prima facie status. Additionally, access to civil documentation is challenging for PoCs due to high costs and lack of centralized registration. A lack of documents can lead to arrests and deportation, additionally, PoCs report SGBV, being denied wages as well as harassment (GFI)

Somalia has a GDP growth of 2.6% per annum mainly supported by livestock with commercial provision of electricity one of the key target sectors for entrepreneurship. Other lucrative sectors include health, security, aviation and education. Somalia is one of the only countries on the Least Developed Country list to have electricity in even the remotest locations. Local markets are dominated by trade followed by the private sector. Somalia’s manufacturing industry is fragile due to cheaper imported products. Somalia’s economy is fueled by three main arteries, international aid, the diaspora community and illegal activities such as ransom, extortion and at times, hijacking. For women, the most employable sectors are the beauty and the tailoring sector. Somalia’s fastest growing sectors are construction at 33% and communication at 25%. The sectors with the highest demand include tailoring at 15% and teaching at 15%. Furthermore, 27.2% of Somalis work as laborers, 13.8% work in trade and 7.3% as farmers.

Country Response