In Iraq, absence of an effective legal framework for refugee protection and naturalization continues to prelude longer term residency rights and other legal benefits for PoCs. The instruments in Iraq for refugees protection include the 1971 political refugee act as well as a draft refugee law submitted in 2018 currently awaiting the establishment of a parliament for its ratification. The main PoC population in Iraq consist of IDP’s and mainly 240,000 Syrian refugees, 97% of which reside in the KRI. Most refugees face severely constrained access to basic services, continued security risks, and a lack of livelihoods opportunities and financial resources. Over 10,000 Syrian PoCs were denied documents and movement restrictions limit return for PoCs who left to visit Syria (GFI). 60% of the IDP population arrived in KRI post 2014, with 55% originally from Ninewa and 20% from Salah al Din. In Duhok, higher education is usually a guarantee for employment with over 92% of women with degrees working in the public sector. However as most PoCs have limited access to education, employment opportunities are limited.

\he non-oil economy of Iraq has seen a growth of 4% thanks to trade agreements signed in 2018 with neighboring countries. At 48.7%, Iraq has one of the lowest labor force participation rates in the world, especially for women (12%) and youth (26%) (World Bank).Half of the population in the KRI are under the age of 15 with 45% of the population having no primary education. The public sector employs nearly half of the working population as well as 75% of female employees. Regarding male workers, 44% are employed by the public sector, 21% are self-employed, 12% work in the public sector, and 21% are daily workers. Additionally, the public sector is the main source of income for 47% of the population, while the agricultural industry employs less than 6%. Furthermore, 2/3 of the population own their own dwellings. 

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